Scholarship in the entrepreneurship and marketing literatures has helped advance thinking about how health care organizations create value for companies and consumers. However, there is an ongoing need for empirical research; hence, the purpose of this paper is to examine how entrepreneurial orientation and customer orientation influence healthcare (retail pharmacy) industry performance.
Using a sample of the US retail pharmacies, the study applies partial least squares structural equation modeling to identify the direct and indirect effects of the entrepreneurial orientation constructs on company performance. The study also includes importance–performance analyses to prioritize for managers which orientations, dimensions and respective manifest items merit the most critical attention as contributors to pharmacy performance.
We find that the entrepreneurial orientation has a significant impact on customer orientation and company effectiveness. We also find that three dimensions – innovation, risk-taking, and proactiveness – exhibit stronger importance and performance than autonomy and competitive aggressiveness.
While the present study employs data from firms of various sizes, it is limited to firms in the pharmacy industry. Although this study included established EO measures, one of the risk taking items was dropped from the final analysis. In certain research contexts, this result may or may not be consequential. Finally, this study employed nonfinancial measures for measuring performance. Using such measures is not uncommon and can offer insightful linkages to long-term organizational strategies in ways not afforded by conventional financial measures (Ittner and Larcker 2000); however, future research should, if possible, aim to capture financial and nonfinancial data.
In the dynamic healthcare environment, entrepreneurial pharmacies that have the ability to innovate, take risks and be proactive can provide superior customer orientation and hence better performance.
Health care industry in general and pharmacies in particular have to be entrepreneurial to meet customer needs and hence the wellbeing of the society With the aging population and growth of complex diseases, pharmacies can provide better access to care delivery if they have entrepreneurial orientation.
In this study, partial least square modeling technique along with importance performance analysis was adopted for first time in this literature to identify key factors that contribute to EO. The findings will aid pharmacy managers to focus their initiatives on the three key dimensions to succeed in their retail pharmacy business.